Chinese Exclusion Laws the and U.S.-China Relationship

Author: Haimin Liu, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
Origin: http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/2003/Liu.pdf
Description:In the paper, it mentions about Caleb Cushing, who was sent by the U.S. government to sign the Wang Xiao Treaty in Macao — an unequal treaty that allowed U.S. to enjoy the same fruit as the Britain from the 1840 Nanjing Treaty. The treaty also allowed the U.S. to join the opium business in China and forced China to open more treaty ports.

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