容闳与留美幼童-

Origin: http://www.zhuhai.gov.cn/xxfw/zzjg/szsydw/sbwg/ronghong/zglmyt/rhylmyt/200708/t20070808_18694.htm
Content:

容闳与留美幼童
01、1867年,总理衙门聘请即将回国御任的美国驻华公使蒲安臣为“办理各国中外交涉事务大臣”。1868年2月25日,蒲安臣使团前往美国。在 美期间,蒲安臣以“钦差大臣”名义与西华德缔结中美“续增条约”。也就是所谓《蒲安臣条约》。条约第七条:“中国人欲入美国大小官学,学习各等文艺,需照 相待最惠国人民一律优等”。这一规定造成幼童留美大气候。
In 1867, former U.S. diplomatic minister to China Anson Burlingame was designated by the Zhongli Yamen (“Office for Foreign Affairs”) as imperial envoy charged with the conduct of China’s international relations. On February 25, 1868, he set out for the U.S. as an imperial commissioner. In July, with U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward, he signed the Burlingame Treaty, guaranteeing most-favoured-nation treatment to each country’s residents or visitors in the other nation. This created a climate for sending Chinese teenagers to study in the U.S. Shown here are Burlingame and Qing’s diplomats in New York.
02、1868年,容闳向清政府提出了派遣青少年出洋留学为主要内容的四项建议:其中提出:“政府宜选派颖秀青年,送之出洋留学,以为国家储蓄人 材,……”对初次留学幼童的名额、批次、时间提出方案,希望以后能永定为例。获悉幼童留学计划已奏请朝廷获准,容闳高兴得夜不能寐。图为主持留学生工作期 间的容闳。
In 1868 Yung made four proposals, in the second of which he proposed that “the government send picked Chinese youths abroad to be thoroughly educated for public service.” This was Yung’s most sought-after goal. When the news of sanction for such an educational scheme reached his ears, he was too happy to sleep. This picture was takenduring his tenure at the Chinese Educational Commission.

03、1871年,曾国藩等洋务派官员接受容闳建议,奏请清政府派遣幼童留美。
In 1871 Tseng Kuo-fan et al accepted Yung’s proposals and submitted a joint memorandum to the court, hoping to send Chinese youths to study in the U.S. Here is the memorial signed by Tseng Kuo-fan, Li Hung-chang (Li Hongzhang), and Ding Yih Chang (Ding Richang).
04、李鸿章(1823-1901)安徽合肥人。清宣宗道光二十七年进士,为清末大臣,淮军创始人、洋务派首领。支持容闳的幼童留美计划。
Li Hung-chang (Li Hongzhang; 1823-1901) was born in Hefei, Anhui province. He passed the metropolitan examination in 1847 and earned the title of “Jinshi”, the highest degree of that time. As a prominent minister of the late Qing, he was head of the Yangwupai, and a supporter of Yung’s educational program.
05、十九世纪的中国风气未开,世人对出国留学尚存诸多疑虑,家长对送子留洋极不放心,招生工作十分困难。容闳只有求助于怡和洋行买办香山(今珠海)人唐廷枢,通过他的影响力,鼓动幼童报名。
In the 19th century most Chinese people were still traditionally conservative and their misgivings about sending their children abroad to study handicapped the enrollment process. Yung went to Hong Kong to seek help from Tang Tingshu (born in Xiangshan County, now within the administration of Zhuhai), a comprador for Jardine Matheson & Co., hoping to draw more youths to enroll through Tang’s good offices. Shown here are Tang’s works Ying Yu Ji Quan ( “A Book of English Dialogues”).

06、1872年的部分留美幼童。
Some of the youths in 1872.

07、1872年,清政府任命容闳为出洋肄业局副监督,而正监督由翰林陈兰彬担任。容闳写信给耶鲁大学校长波特博士,叙述清政府派遣幼童赴美的计划内容。
In 1872 the Qing government appointed Yung as Vice Commissioner and Chin Lan Pin (Chen Lanbin) as Commissioner of the Chinese Educational Commission. Yung wrote to president of Yale College Noah Porter, detailing the government’s education program.
08、设在美国康州的中国留学生事务所(出洋肄业局)大厦。
The complex of the Chinese Educational Commission in Hartford, Connecticut. 09、当时的传媒对幼童留美事件有过报道。
The media at that time reported on the educational programme. Shown here is the office of the paper Shenbao,

which had debuted in 1872.
10、同治十一年七月二日《申报》在头版头条刊发题为《拟西学生赴美国肄业事宜议》的评论文章。《申报》不仅刊登留美幼童名单,还在此后有多篇跟踪报导,大力鼓吹留美教育,称“此举非但有利于国,亦且有益于家,可不留意哉!”
On the front page of the Shenbao of the lunar calendar dated the 2nd of July 1872, the news of the educational programme was headlined “On Sending Students to U.S. to Study”. The paper not only listed the names of the youths to be sent abroad, but also had a number of follow-ups about the story, in an attempt to promote overseas study in America. It argued that “such an initiative benefits both the nation and its people. How could you not take notice of this?”
11、促成留美幼童计划的李鸿章得知幼童学业有进步的消息,十分高兴。在致容闳的信中说:“近来学生造诣,有诸君认真督率,自当进而益上。”
This is a letter from Li, the major protagonist of the educational project, to Yung Wing. It is included in The Complete Works of Li Hung-chang. The first line begins with “Under your tutelage, the students will soon make more progress in their learning.”
12、1875年12月,陈兰彬、容闳被任命为驻美、西、秘三国正、副公使。
In Dec 1875 Chin Lan Pin and Yung Wing were respectively appointed Minister Plenipotentiary and Vice-minister Plenipotentiary to America, Spain and Peru. This is Chin in San Francisco, CA., U.S.A.
13、幼童的学习计划十分周密,教育十分严格,除西学外,还要学中学,课程有《孝经》、《小学》、《五经》及《国朝律例》等书。
The curricula for the youths were most comprehensive, encompassing not only Western learning but also Chinese classics. Shown here are the youths in class. 14、第一批留美幼童名单
Names of the first detachment of youths to the U.S.
姓名 年龄 籍贯 姓名 年龄 籍贯
蔡绍基 14 广东香山 钟文耀 13 广东香山
罗国瑞 12 广东博罗 欧阳赓 14 广东香山
黄仲良 15 广东番禺 邝荣光 10 广东新宁
张康仁 13 广东香山 梁敦彦 15 广东顺德
潘铭钟 11 广东南海 刘家照 12 广东香山
黄锡宝 13 福建同安 黄开甲 13 广东平县
陈巨溶 13 广东新会 曹吉福 13 江苏川沙
程大器 14 广东香山 陆永泉 14 广东香山
邓士聪 14 广东香山 陈荣贵 14 广东新会
钱文魁 14 江苏上海 史锦镛 15 广东香山
吴仰曾 11 广东四会 容尚谦 10 广东香山
蔡锦章 14 广东香山 牛尚周 11 江苏嘉定
詹天佑 12 安徽徽州 何廷梁 13 广东顺德
谭耀勋 11 广东香山 石锦堂 14 山东济宁
钟进成 14 广东香山 曾笃恭 16 广东海阳
15、第二批留美幼童名单
Names of the second detachment of youths to the U.S.
姓名 年龄 籍贯 姓名 年龄 籍贯
蔡廷斡 13 广东香山 吴应科 14 广东四会
容揆 14 广东新宁 苏锐钊 14 广东南海
丁崇吉 14 浙江定海 陆锡贵 13 江苏上海
李恩富 13 广东香山 黄有章 13 广东香山
张祥和 11 江苏吴县 陈乾生 14 浙江宁波
曾溥 不详 广东朝阳 容尚勤 不详 广东香山
唐国安 14 广东香山 唐元湛 13 广东香山
宋文岁羽(合字) 13 广东香山 邓桂庭 13 广东香山
邝景垣 13 广东南海 邝泳钟 13 广东南海
梁普照 13 广东番禺 卓仁志 12 广东香山
吴仲贤 14 广东四会 温秉忠 12 广东新宁
梁金荣 14 广东香山 方伯梁 13 广东开平
王凤喈 14 浙江慈溪 李桂攀 14 广东香山
张有恭 12 广东香山 陈佩瑚 11 广东南海
梁普时 11 广东番禺 王良登 13 浙江定海
16、第三批留美幼童名单
Names of the third detachment of youths to the U.S.
姓名 年龄 籍贯 姓名 年龄 籍贯
唐绍仪 12 广东香山 梁如浩 12 广东香山
周长龄 14 广东新安 邝景扬 13 广东南海
朱宝奎 13 江苏常州 容耀垣 10 广东香山
曹嘉祥 11 广东顺德 吴敬荣 11 安徽休宁
周万鹏 11 江苏宝山 卢祖华 11 广东新会
林沛泉 12 广东番禺 徐振鹏 11 广东香山
唐致尧 13 广东香山 程大业 12 安徽黔县
薛有福 12 福建漳浦 徐之煊 12 广东南海
曹嘉爵 12 广东顺德 曹茂祥 10 江苏上海
朱锡绥 10 江苏上海 宦维城 10 江苏丹徒
袁长坤 12 浙江绍兴 祁祖彝 12 江苏上海
邝贤俦 12 广东南海 康赓龄 12 江苏上海
杨兆楠 13 广东南海 黄季良 13 广东番禺
杨昌龄 12 广东顺德 郑廷襄 13 广东香山
孙广明 14 浙江钱塘 沈嘉树 11 江苏宝山
17、第四批留美幼童名单
Names of the fourth detachment of youths to the U.S.
姓名 年龄 籍贯 姓名 年龄 籍贯
刘玉麟 13 广东香山 邝国光 13 广东新宁
黄耀昌 13 广东香山 吴焕荣 13 江苏武进
潘斯炽 11 广东南海 陆德彰 13 江苏川沙
吴其藻 12 广东香山 林联盛 14 广东南海
盛文扬 12 广东香山 唐荣浩 13 广东香山
陈绍昌 13 广东香山 梁金鳌 11 广东南海
林联辉 15 广东南海 陈金揆 12 广东香山
沈德耀 14 浙江慈溪 沈德辉 12 浙江慈溪
朱汝淦 11 江苏华亭 王仁彬 12 江苏吴县
梁丕旭 12 广东番禺 周传谔 13 江苏嘉定
邝柄光 13 广东新宁 周传谏 11 江苏嘉定
陶廷赓 12 广东南海 谭耀芳 10 广东香山
唐荣俊 14 广东香山 陈福增 14 广东南海
金大廷 13 江苏宝山 沈寿昌 11 江苏上海
冯柄忠 12 广东鹤山 黄祖莲 13 安徽怀远

18、第一批留美幼童詹天佑。
Jeme Tien You (Zhan Tianyou, left), one of the first detachment.

19、蔡绍基,第一批留美幼童。广东香山人。北洋大学(现天津大学)校长。
Cai Shaoji, of the first detachment, was born in Xiangshan, Guangdong province. He later became president of Peiyang University, the present-day Tianjin University.

20、黄仲良 第一批留美幼童。广东番禺人。归国后任中国驻旧金山领事,粤汉铁路广州段总办,津浦铁路总办等职。
Wong Chung Liang (Huang Zhongliang), of the first detachment, was born in Panyu, Guangdong province. After returning to China he was appointed to several posts, such as the Chinese Consul in San Francisco, chief superintendent of the Canton-Wuhan railway Canton section and chief superintendent of the Tientsin-Shanghai railway.

21、留美幼童黄仲良在留美期间画的画。
A painting by the youth Wong Chung Liang (Huang Zhongliang ) during his study in the U.S.

22、唐国安 第二批留美幼童。广东香山(今珠海)人。历任外交部、学部属“游美学务处”会办、清华学堂监督、清华学校第一任校长。
Tang Guo’an, of the second detachment, born in Xiangshan (presently Zhuhai), Guangdong province. He successively held the posts of assistant chief superintendent of Foreign Ministry, superintendent of Office for Studies in the U.S., superintendent of Tsinghua Xuetang (former name of Tsinghua School), and first president of Tsinghua School.

23、唐绍仪,广东香山人(今属珠海唐家湾)。第三批留美幼童。1904年,先后领“副都统”及“议约全权大臣”衔,参与中英西藏问题谈判。民国成立时,任第一任总理。
Tang Shaoyi, of the third detachment, was born in Tangjia, Xiangshan (presently Tangjia, Zhuhai), Guangdong province. In 1904 the Qing Emperor Guangxu conferred on him the title Vice Governor and later Chief Imperial Commissioner. Tang Shaoyi participated in the talks with the British over the matters of Tibet. After the founding of the new republic in 1911, he was appointed Prime Minister of the Republic of China (1912-1949). The boy on the left is Tang.
24、第二批留美幼童温秉忠是宋氏三姐妹的姨父,1907年他把十四岁的宋庆龄和九岁的宋美龄带到美国留学。
Wen Bingzhong, of the second detachment. In 1907 he took 14 year-old Soong Ching-ling and 9-year-old Soong Mei-ling to the U.S. to study. The former later became wife of Sun Yat-sen, and the latter wife of Chiang Kai-shek.

25、容星桥,广东香山人(今属珠海唐家湾)。第三批留美幼童,被称为参加20世纪初的革命运动的惟一一名“留美幼童”。他是《中国日报》创办人之一,《中国日报》是兴中会的机关报。图为容星桥。
Yung Singkew was the only one who participated in the revolutionary movement in the early 1900s. This man is Rong Singkew.

26、容闳倡导的官派留学影响,当时一些与外国人打交道的买办家庭和富豪有的也自费供子女出洋留学。
Apart from the youth who participated in the government-funded programme, there were some self-funded children born into comprador or rich families who went abroad to study. Here is a self-funded student in the early stage.
27、这是1880年由中国最后一位留美幼童学业监督吴子登签署《规章》,共十条,对幼童的时间安排、课程设置、有关费用及要求等都有详细规定,明显表示对幼童们所受美式教育的不满。
These are the Regulations endorsed by Woo Tsze Tun, the last commissioner of the CEC.
资料来源:共同的容闳网站

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