年 2 月 23 日在俄国城市圣彼得堡去世。正式葬礼
1870 年 4月 23 日在美国东部城市波士顿举行，灵车覆盖美国星条旗和中国清朝黄龙旗，沿街数以千计市民致意。同治皇帝下诏书，追授一品文官衔（相当于总理级别），赐予遗属
32 公里，现有大约 2.9 万居民。
万人计划”，有意以后 4 年内送 10 万名美国学生去中国就读。
作者柴大定 (David Chai)
Anson Burlingame [蒲安臣] 1820-1870
By David Chai [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Who is Burlingame?
Mass. State Senator, 1853-54
US House of Representatives, 1855-61
Appointed by Pres. Lincoln as Minister to China, 1861-67
Appointed by Emperor Tongzhi [同治皇帝] as Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States
and other Treaty European nations, 1867-1870
Burlingame’s Significant Contributions:
While in Congress:
o Spoke against slavery
o As a distinguished orator,
delivered scathing remarks in defense of his US Senator Sumner from Mass who
was attacked by Representative Preston Brooks of South Carolina for having
spoken against the pro-slavery stance of the Southern states.
While in Beijing:
o Developed a “Cooperative Policy” that advocated common
interests among the Treaty Powers and China as opposed to coercion and threat
of force toward China.
o Helped introduce mining,
telegraphing and other technologies, as well as international law.
o Demonstrated his true belief in
the equality of people when he had to set up his own court in Beijing to
convict a white American to hang, after taking the witness testimonies of
o Convinced Prince Gong to send
students to America to learn new technology to bring back to China, including
railroading and telegraphing.
While in the US:
o Working with the then Secretary of State Seward on what
was later known as the Burlingame Treaty and getting it approved by US
Congress. Main points include,
That the US would not interfere
with the internal affairs of China
That China can appoint Consuls at ports in the US, with
the same privilege of immunities of other Most Favored Nations, such as
Britain, France, Russia
That either nation would be open
to unlimited immigration from the other
That citizens of one nation would
be able to travel, study and reside freely in the other nation
o Spoke eloquently on improving
trade with and respecting the sovereignty of China in major US cities.
While in Europe:
o Continued his mission to get his
Treaty approved by other European powers:
Meeting Queen Victoria of Britain and Foreign Secretary
Meeting Emperor Napoleon III of France
Meeting King William of Prussia
Meeting Tsar Alexander II of Russia
o Died of pneumonia in St.
Petersburg, Russia on 2/23/1870. His official burial ceremony in Boston on
4/23/1870 was attended by tens of thousands on the street as his carriage was
covered with both the Stars and Stripes flag and the Yellow Dragon flag of China.
A Royal Decree was delivered from Emperor Tongzhi awarding
him posthumously as Civilian Rank 1 [equivalent to the position of Prime Minister]
and an award of 10,000 liang [or 500,000 grams] of
silver to his family.
In Nov. 1867, the first American and only person in the
world ever, to become an Envoy from the country which he was originally
assigned as an Envoy from the US.
In July 1868, he helped to draft and ratify through US
congress a Treaty between the US and China that was the first equal treaty
between any of the Western powers and China. It put China at the same basis as
any other Most Favored Nations, such as Britain, France and Russia.
The equality of the Burlingame
Treaty helped China to open its door to send young students (i.e., high
schools) to study in US to learn new technologies to modernize China.
In 1880, the Burlingame Treaty
was re-negotiated with China to temporarily suspend the Chinese immigration
before the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882.
In 1908, the City of Burlingame
was incorporated with the namesake of Anson Burlingame. It is a city about 20
miles south of San Francisco with a current population of ~29,000.
In 2009, Pres. Obama announced
the “100,000 Strong Initiative” to send 100,000 American students to study in
China within four years.
In 2011, US Senate passed a
Resolution Expressing Regret for Discriminatory Laws against Chinese
Immigrants, including the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
In 2012, US Congress unanimously
passed a Resolution of Regret for Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and other
How to honor him?
To create an annual Anson
Burlingame Award for the best American who improved the US – China relations.
To create a film documentation on
Anson Burlingame to inspire students to study in each other’s country of her
language and culture.
To organize conferences to
discuss policies to reduce tensions and improve US-China bilateral relations.
To name the San Francisco airport
to Anson Burlingame International airport.
Source material: A collection of relevant Burlingame
material can be found at: